The main components of the apparatus are:
- Sample introduction system: loop capacity from 5 to 500 μl
- Autosampler: Waters 717 plus with 96-vial position carousel
- Pumps: reciprocating pumps (or piston)
- Thermostat of the column
- Detectors: Waters 2996 photodiode array detector, Waters 410 differential refractometer, Waters 2487 Dual λ absorbance detector, Waters 2475 multi λ fluorescence detector.
The sample to be analyzed, after appropriate pre-treatment to extract the analytes of interest, is injected at the beginning of the chromatographic column where it is "pushed" through the stationary phase from the mobile phase by applying pressures in the order of hundreds of atmospheres. At the end of the column there are a detector unit and a computer which allow a continuous analysis in order to quantify and/or identify the substances injected. The main advantages of this technique are: speed of elution (passage of the mobile phase through the column) constant and adjustable; reduced execution speed; small amount of compound necessary for the analysis (in the order of 5-10 micrograms of sample solubilized in appropriate solvent), greater accuracy and precision.
Evaluation of a competing product, Continuous control of a production process as quality control, Control of industrial discharges as preventive control of the quality of surface water, Determination of the quantity of drugs and its metabolites in biological matrices in the field of clinical research, Environmental analysis.
Liquid chromatography coupled to detection systems (UV-visible detector, diode array detector, refractive index detector, fluorescence detector).